贸易领域，2013年，中国与印尼货物贸易总额达到524.5亿美元，2022年跃升至1 491亿美元，增长2.84倍。截至到2022年，中国已连续9年成为印尼的第一大贸易伙伴。中印尼经贸合作跨越了新冠肺炎疫情影响，实现了逆势增长，两国贸易额突破1 000亿美元，同比增长近60%，创造历史新高。在当前世界经济格局深度演化背景下，中印尼通过双边、多边贸易有效带动两国经济保持强劲复苏增长，并促使双边贸易结构变得更加平衡。
Cooperating and Sharing the Prosperity: China and Indonesia
Jointly Build the Belt and Road Initiative 10th Anniversary
(Assistant Researcher, School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University)
Indonesia is the first place to launch the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road” in the Belt and Road Initiative. On October 3rd, 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping proposed the concept of the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road” in his speech to the Indonesian Parliament. Thus, Indonesia has become an important node country in the BRI. Over the past decade, China and Indonesia have achieved fruitful results in jointly building the Belt and Road Initiative, setting a model for win-win cooperation among major developing countries. Since 2013, China and Indonesia have realized extensive and in-depth development in many fields such as policy communication, facility connectivity, unimpeded trade, financial integration, and people-to-people bonds.
II.The heads of state of China and Indonesia have drawn up plans, and major developing countries are moving towards each other
As major developing countries and representatives of emerging economies, China and Indonesia share extensive common interests and have broad space for cooperation. In recent years, under the strategic guidance of the two heads of state, China and Indonesia have adhered to the ideas and concepts of “harmony without uniformity” and “different paths to reach the same destination”, and have created a development pattern under the new pattern of bilateral cooperation in politics, economy, humanities and maritime with “four-wheel drive”. It is a model of mutual respect, mutual benefit and win-win between China and major countries, also a model of common development, an example of fairness and justice, and a pioneer of South-South cooperation. China and Indonesia have jointly built the BRI for ten years, which is the consistent will of the two peoples to meet each other halfway.
In the process of modernization, both countries adhere to the people-centered development philosophy, have similar ideas and propositions, share common interests, and have a shared future and destiny. For the national rejuvenation, China is striding forward towards its second centenary goal of fully building a modern and powerful socialist country. Indonesia is also making strides to un-swervingly achieve its centenary goal of 2045. The ten years of high-quality joint construction of the BRI have highlighted the common interests and win-win cooperation between the two countries at the bilateral, regional and global levels. Over the past ten years, China and Indonesia have expanded mutually beneficial cooperation in all aspects and successfully embarked on the right path of harmony but diversity and common prosperity.
It coincides with the 10th anniversary of the establishment of a comprehensive strategic partnership between China and Indonesia. It is also the first year of China and Indonesia’s joint efforts to build the Community of Shared Future. On the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the high-quality B&R cooperation between them, building a community with a shared future between China and Indonesia has become the common aspiration and common expectation of the people. Under the guidance of the diplomacy between the two heads of state, China and Indonesia have continuously consolidated a high degree of political mutual trust, created a new pattern of high-level cooperation, and enriched the connotation of a community with a shared future. Practice has proven that China and Indonesia provide each other with development opportunities and are like-minded fellow travelers and good partners. Mutual benefit and win-win cooperation between this two countries have become an international model for South-South cooperation.
III.Development strategies are deeply mutual embedded, economic and trade cooperation has yielded fruitful results
In the field of trade, the total trade in goods between China and Indonesia reached US$52.45 billion in 2013, jumping to US$149.1 billion in 2022, an increase of 2.84 times. As of 2022, China has become Indonesia’s largest trading partner for nine consecutive years. China-Indonesia economic and trade cooperation has overcome the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic and achieved growth against the trend. The trade volume has exceeded 100 billion US dollars, a year-on-year increase of nearly 60%, setting a record high. Against the background of the current profound evolution of the world economic landscape, China and Indonesia have effectively driven the two economies to maintain strong recovery and growth through bilateral and multilateral trade, and promoted the bilateral trade structure to become more balanced.
In the field of investment, the BRI is deeply aligned with Indonesia’s “Global Maritime Fulcrum” Strategy, accelerating China’s investment in Indonesia. In 2022, China’s direct investment flow in Indonesia increased nearly three times compared with 2013, and the stock increased more than five times, reaching US$4.55 billion and US$24.72 billion respectively, accounting for 24.4% and 16% respectively in Southeast Asia. Indonesia has become China’s the second largest foreign direct investment stock along the B&R route. As of September 2023, China has realized a total of 19,570 investment projects of various types in Indonesia, including 117 large-scale investments of US$100 million and above, forming four major mid-capital industry clusters in non-ferrous metals, automobile manufacturing, building materials and electrical appliances, and food processing.
In the field of infrastructure, China actively supports Indonesia’s “Maritime Highway” development initiative, is deeply involved in the construction of “Regional Comprehensive Economic Corridors”, and effectively promotes the construction of highways, railways, ports, telecommunications networks and other projects. Power plants built by Chinese companies contribute a quarter of Indonesia’s total power generation. The flagship projects including, China Overseas’ thermal power unit with the largest unit capacity and independent intellectual property rights—Indonesia Java 7 2×1050MW power generation project—is an efficient and environmentally friendly power station with the largest unit capacity, the highest parameters, the most advanced technology, and the best indicators in the history of Indonesian power construction. Indonesia’s “Three Gorges Project”—Jatigede Dam, China’s first full-system, all-factor, and full-production-chain overseas construction project for high-speed railway—the Jakarta-Bandung High-speed Railway has become a landmark project of the B&R jointly built by China and Indonesia.
In addition, under the B&R green development partnership initiative, China and Indonesia have achieved remarkable achievements in the fields of green economy, digital economy, blue economy, and new infrastructure construction. The two parties will seize digital opportunities to build a digital economic partnership featuring mutual trust, mutual benefit, inclusiveness, innovation and win-win, and orderly advance the cooperation including digital technology in epidemic prevention and control, digital infrastructure, industrial digital transformation, smart cities, cyberspace and network security. Accelerate the cultivation of new growth points such as green development and digital economy, and actively participate in the construction of the New Capital (IKN) and the North Kalimantan Industrial Park projects based on the concepts of “green”, “low carbon” and “sustainable development”. Research shows that Indonesia is one of the 11 partner countries that have achieved the highest level of cooperation in the joint construction of the BRI. In the past ten years, China and Indonesia have cooperated extensively and deeply in jointly building the B&R.
Ⅳ.People-to-people and cultural exchanges are exponentially increasing, fostering friendship and strengthening the bilateral bonds
“Humanities” is one of the core contents of the “four-wheel drive” cooperation between the two countries, and it is also an important driving force for the stable and sustainable relations of China-Indonesia. Since China and Indonesia jointly built the BRI in 2013, the both sides have continued to deepen and expend people-to-people and cultural exchanges, enhanced understanding and friendship among the peoples, and achieved breakthrough accomplishments. In 2015, the two countries jointly launched a people-to-people and cultural exchange mechanism at the vice-premier level. The construction of people-to-people and cultural exchange mechanisms has been continuously upgraded, achieving a milestone in this field between China and Indonesia. The China-Indonesia Deputy Prime Minister-level people-to-people exchange mechanism has held three meetings so far. The areas of cooperation have been continuously expanded, the scale of cooperation has been expanding, and social participation has become more extensive, setting up a platform for deepening bilateral humanities exchanges and cooperation.
In 2021, China and Indonesia integrated the original cooperation mechanisms of political security, economy, and humanities to establish a high-level dialogue and cooperation mechanism. At the same time, the cooperation between the two countries will be upgraded from the “troika” of politics, economy, and people-to-people exchanges to the “four-wheel drive” of political, economic, people-to-people and cultural cooperation, and maritime cooperation, further coordinating resources in all aspects, and forming a greater synergy that will be more comprehensive, in-depth, and efficient. In the post-epidemic era, pragmatically advance cooperation between China and Indonesia and create greater benefits for the people of the two countries. Currently, the two sides are guided by the joint efforts of China and Indonesia to build a community with a shared future and are promoting in-depth exchanges and close cooperation in the humanities field, forming a multi-faceted, wide-ranging and diversified cooperation situation.
People-to-people and cultural exchanges between China and Indonesia have maintained a high-frequency, high-level, and high-quality development trend, and flagship projects have gradually formed in various fields. Since the joint construction of the B&R, China and Indonesia have jointly promoted the implementation of the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Joint Laboratory, the High-speed Railway Research Center, Giant Panda Protection Research and Giant Panda Settlement in Indonesia, Public Health Talent Cooperation Training Program, and China-Indonesia Scientist Exchange Program , the Hundred Youth Exchange Project, the University Think Tank Alliance, the China-Indonesia Exchange Special Scholarship, which a series of flagship and brand projects has built a bridge of friendship for people-to-people exchanges. China and Indonesia have deepened the friendship between the two peoples and enhanced people-to-people exchanges through technological exchanges, personnel training, joint research and other humanities programs.
Ⅴ.Conclusions and Prospects
Currently, China is moving towards the second centenary goal of fully building a modern and powerful socialist country, and Indonesia is also working hard to achieve the centenary goal of the founding of the country in 2045. On the road to national modernization and national rejuvenation, this two countries have similar ideals and common interests, and their future and destiny are at stake. Under the strategic guidance of the two heads of state, China and Indonesia have adhered to the ideas and concepts of “harmony without uniformity” and “different paths to reach the same destination” and have jointly built the BRI for ten years, creating a model of mutual respect, mutual benefit and win-win between major developing countries.
Ten years of hard work have built a energetic momentum for the bilateral cooperation. What runs through the Belt and Road Initiative is the willingness and unswerving steps of China and Indonesia to move toward each other. Standing at a new historical intersection, China and Indonesia, the two “old” and “young” world powers, will work closely towards the next decade under the strategic planning of the two heads of state. Walking together on the same road, sharing weal and woe, the sincere cooperation between China and Indonesia will surely push the wheel of history towards light and prosperity.